Glossary of Terms
X Y Z
Act 100 Determination - A finding
issued by the PA Department of Agriculture on the basis of studies and
a presentation to the Agricultural Lands Condemnation Approval Board
(ALCAB). Section 306 of Pennsylvania Act 100 (Farmlands, December 7,
1979) mandates that studies be performed and a determination be made
before agricultural lands can be condemned for transportation purposes.
Aerial Photography - High resolution
photographs taken from aircraft which are used to assess features in
a study area, which are also used to produce topographic base maps of
varying scales for alignment studies, engineering, and final design
Affected Environment - The physical
features, land, area, or areas to be influenced, affected or created
by an alternative alignment under consideration; also includes various
social and environmental factors and conditions pertinent to an area.
Agency Coordination - Refers to the
process whereby the Department of Transportation contacts, consults,
and maintains communication with various public and environmental resource
agencies, affording such agencies an opportunity to review and comment
upon specific transportation proposals.
Agency Coordination Meeting (ACM)
- A monthly gathering of representatives from ten natural resource agencies
who review projects. The goal of the ACM is to foster effective agency
communications during the development of projects so that environmental
issues are identified, clearly understood, and properly addressed early
in the process. Project Team representatives present updates on their
work to the ACM at several key stages of project development.
Alternative - One of a number of
specific proposals, alignments, options, design choices, etc., in a
Agricultural Lands Condemnation Approval
Board (ALCAB) - A six-person, independent administrative board
with jurisdiction over the condemnation of certain types of agricultural
lands in Pennsylvania. The Board reviews proposals and presentations
made by the Department of Transportation and determines whether there
is a prudent or reasonable alternative to the condemnation of lands
being used for productive agricultural purposes.
Agricultural Land Preservation Policy (ALPP)
- A Pennsylvania law (4 Pa Code, Chapter 7, Section 7.301 et seq.) that
all state agencies must support. This policy regulates the conversion
of farmland that meets the ALPP definition of "primary agricultural
Agricultural Security Area (ASA)
- Special areas created at the municipal level and comprising at least
250 acres of viable agricultural land. The properties within an ASA
do not have to be contiguous. ALCAB approval is required for Commonwealth
agencies to condemn productive agricultural land within an ASA. Projects
involving improvements to highways relating to (on or near) existing
facilities are exempt from this requirement.
Archaeological Investigations - Cultural
resource studies conducted in accordance with Section 106 of the National
Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended. Depending on the extent
and significance of archaeological resources in a study area, investigations
may proceed through three phases, each with an increasingly complex
level of detail. In Phase I archaeological investigations, a field survey
is conducted to provide an inventory of all archaeological resources
in a project area that are potentially eligible for the National Register
of Historic Places. Phase II investigations are designed to sample the
archaeological deposits at a site in order to determine its eligibility
for listing in the National Register. Phase III involves data recovery
excavation to mitigate the adverse effects to an eligible site. Refer
to Department Strike-Off Letter #430-92-29, "Archaeological Procedures
for Highway Development," (March 18, 1992).
Average Daily Traffic Volume - The
total traffic volume during a given time period in whole days (24-hour
periods), greater than one day and less than one year, divided by the
number of days in that time period.
Avoidance Alternative - Any proposal
that has been developed, modified, shifted or downsized specifically
in order to avoid affecting one or more resources (as in cultural, agricultural,
or natural resources) regarded as significant.
Build Out - Estimated future development
during the identified study period.
Capability Class - Categories used
by the USDA, NRCS, to designate the suitability of soil phases for most
farming practices. There are eight capability classes, which are denoted
with the Roman numerals I through VIII. Capability Class I soils have
the fewest limitations for agriculture and the widest range of use while
Capability Class VIII soils have the most limitations to agricultural
use. The capability class designations are found in the County soil
surveys published by the USDA.
Capacity - The maximum number of
vehicles that can reasonably be expected to pass over a lane or a roadway
during a given time period under prevailing roadway and traffic conditions.
Typically, the maximum expressway capacity for automobiles is 2,000
vehicles per lane per hour.
Council of Economic Quality (CEQ)
- The President's Council on Environmental Quality is the agency responsible
for the oversight and development of national environmental policy.
Created by NEPA, CEQ also shares this responsibility with the EPA.
Community Advisory Committee (CAC)
- A group of local elected officials and representatives from local
civic organizations that serve as a media for relay of information and
ideas between PENNDOT and the public.
Comprehensive Plan - The general,
inclusive, long-range statement of the future development of a community.
The plan is typically a map accompanied by description and supplemented
by policy statements that direct future capital improvements in an area.
Conceptual Mitigation - The early,
generalized identification of measures that would minimize or avoid
anticipated environmental consequences associated with a given alternative.
Typically, conceptual mitigation ideas are discussed prior to the concluding
stages of an environmental study, well before many of the ideas are
further worked upon, refined or committed.
Conformity - The US Clean Air Act
stipulates that any approved transportation project, plan, or program
must conform to the State Implementation Plan, a document with prescribed
procedures for the implementation, maintenance and enforcement of primary
and secondary pollutants.
Consensus - The point at which agencies
and the public offer their agreement with recommendations or findings.
Lancaster County and PENNDOT work to build consensus through continuing
coordination, especially ACMs and Public Meetings. A study or project
generally does not proceed to the next major stage in development until
it has been determined that every effort to address the concerns of
agencies and the public have been made. Although unanimous consensus
is seldom achieved, continuous coordination throughout the study process
is expected to gain support from most agencies and much of the public.
Conservation Easement - Private land
whose development rights are held by someone other than the landowner,
usually a government entity or a conservation organization.
Construction Phase - The last of
the five phases of PENNDOT's Transportation Project Development Process
in which a contractor selected by PENNDOT constructs the improvement
Controlled Access - Partial access
restriction that gives preference to through traffic. Also provides
for connections to selected public routes and to certain other adjacent
locations where vehicles can enter or leave a roadway safely without
interfering wtih the through traffic.
Cooperating Agency - As defined in
the Council on Environmental Quality's Regulations for implementing
the Procedural Provisions of the NEPA, "any organization other
than a lead agency which has jurisdiction by law or special expertise
with respect to any environmental impact involved in
Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment."
The CEQ emphasizes that agency cooperation should begin early in the
Cumulative Effects (as per NEPA)
- Effects that are the result of incremental impacts of an action, when
added to other past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future actions,
regardless of which agency (Federal or non-Federal) or person undertakes
Database - A computer-based table
of numbers and text information arranged in rows (records) and columns
Deed Restriction - Clauses included
in a property deed which restrict the property owner's use of the land.
Often, the term is used to refer to deed restrictions which are intended
to preserve land for agricultural use. Such deed restrictions typically
prohibit the property owner from developing the land in such a way that
the land is irretrievably lost to farming. Commonwealth agencies and
County governments can create farmland deed restrictions under the authority
of PA Act 43, PA Act 442, or PA Act 1981-48. Conservation organizations
can also create deed restrictions through normal real estate transactions.
Design Criteria - Established state
and national standards and procedures that guide the establishment of
roadway layouts, alignments, geometry, and dimensions for specified
types of highways in certain defined conditions. The principal design
criteria for highways are traffic volume, design speed, the physical
characteristics of vehicles, the classification of vehicles, and the
percentage of various vehicle classification types that use the highway.
Design Exception - An approval issued
by a state or Federal agency to permit a certain deviation from a specified,
accepted standard granted on the basis of a report explaining the need
for the exception and the consequences that will result from the action.
Design Location Study - Engineering
evaluations of existing conditions, alternative design features, and
costs related to route location. Findings of this study, which is conducted
during the Preliminary Design Phase of transportation project development,
help determine the most feasible and desirable highway location between
a given set of termini. Data from a Design Location Study, which may
include both Phase I and Phase II Alternatives Analysis as defined in
PENNDOT's Transportation Project Development Process, is typically compiled
into a written report.
Design Manual - PA Department of
Transportation Publication 10, published in six volumes, which defines
criteria, processes, and procedures for the evaluation, assessment,
engineering design, and development of highway and bridge projects.
Design Year - The future year specified
and used by planners and engineers for the design of a proposed improvement.
The design year of an improved highway facility is typically 20 years
after the facility has been opened to traffic.
Determination of Effect - A finding
made by the Department, in consultation with the State Historic Preservation
Officer, which determines whether a proposed project affects a property
included on or eligible for the National Register of Historic Places.
Determination of Eligibility - The
process of assembling documentation to render professional evaluation
of the significance of an historic property. The Department, in consultation
with the State Historic Preservation Officer, applies National Register
of Historic Places criteria when deciding matters of historical significance.
Direct Effects - Influences or occurrences
caused by a given action and occurring at the same time and place as
the action. Changes in noise levels, traffic volumes, or visual conditions
are some examples of direct effects of a new highway.
Ecosystem - A community of interacting
organisms (including people) and their environment that functions together
to sustain life.
Environmental - 1) In a scientific
context, a combination of external or extrinsic conditions present in
nature. 2) In a planning context, a category of analytical studies of
aesthetic values, ecological resources, cultural (historical) resources,
sociological and economic conditions, etc.
Environmental Features - Significant
resources, facilities, or other features of a study area located in
or adjacent to an existing or proposed corridor study area that serve
to restrain, restrict, or prevent the ready implementation of proposed
transportation improvements in a given area; may include natural or
physical resources, important structures, communities facilities, or
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
- As defined in the CEQ Regulations, a detailed written report that
provides "full and fair discussion of significant environmental
impacts and (informs) decision-makers and the public of the reasonable
alternatives which would avoid or minimize adverse impacts or enhance
the quality of the human environment." The Draft EIS evaluates
a range of reasonable alternatives and their associated impacts and
presents a preferred alternative if one option is clearly favored above
the others. After Department review, the Draft EIS is circulated among
agencies and the public for comment. Following the Public Hearing held
to formally record comments on the Draft, a Final EIS is prepared incorporating
public and agency input and recommending a selected alternative.
Farmland of Local Importance - Land
identified by the concerned local agencies as important for the production
of food, feed, fiber, and forage even though it was not designated as
farmland of national or statewide importance.
Farmland of Statewide Importance
- Land that has been designated by the State Rural Development Committee
as being of statewide importance for the production of food, feed, fiber,
Farmland Protection Policy Act (FPPA) Farmland
- Soil phases/areas protected by the FPPA and 7 CFR 658. FPPA soils
include prime farmland, unique farmland, farmland of statewide importance,
and farmland of local importance.
Federal Aid Project - An activity,
study, survey, project, or other work related to transportation authorized
in advance by the Federal Highway Administration, and which is paid
for either partially or fully by public funds.
Federal Register - A daily publication
of the US Government Printing Office that contains notices, announcements,
regulations, and other official pronouncements of US Government administrative
agencies. Various printed announcements and findings related to specified
environmental matters and transportation projects and activities appear
in this publication.
Final Design Phase - The fourth of
the five phases of PENNDOT's Transportation Project Development Process.
It involves the development of detailed working drawings, specifications,
and estimates for approved transportation projects in addition to right-of-way
acquisition, utility relocation, and construction contract advertisement
Free Access - The lowest condition
of access control on state highways which allows an unlimited number
of private driveway connections, intersections at grade, field entrance,
or other land service linkages that give vehicles or pedestrians access
to the highways.
Functional Roadway Classification
- The organization of roadways into a hierarchy based on the character
of service provided. Typical classifications included arterial, local,
and collector roadways.
Geographic Information System (GIS)
- A computer-based system that links the geographic location of map
features to text information or databases.
Geometric Design - Pertains to those
engineering activities involving standards and procedures for establishing
the horizontal and vertical alignment and dimensions of slopes of a
highway. It includes engineering work involved with proportioning the
visible elements of a facility, tailoring the highway to the terrain,
the controls of environmental and land space usage, and the requirements
of the highway user, individually and collectively.
Historic Resource - A building, structure,
site, district, or object which is significant in American history,
architecture, archaeology, engineering, and culture.
Hazardous Waste - An environmental
impact category encompassing all types of permitted and unregulated
materials, sites, and substance which require prudent handling and treatment
to prevent harm or danger. Sites are often referred to as Waste Management
Impacts - Positive or negative effects
upon the natural or social environment resulting from transportation
Indirect Effects (see Secondary Effects)
- Effects that can be expected to result from a given action that occur
later in time or further removed in distance; for example, induced changes
to land use patterns, population density, or growth rate.
Interagency Consensus on Integrating NEPA
and Section 404 - In response to the ISTEA of 1991, an interagency
task force agreed to combine the Environmental Protection Agency's NEPA
process with the US Army Corps of Engineers' review of applications
for permits under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. This integrated
review process is intended to streamline the Transportation Project
Development Process by maximizing agency participation throughout.
Intermodal Relationships - Coordination
of different modes of transportation such as rail, air, highways, and
bicycle paths during the planning and development of a study.
Jurisdictional Determination (JD)
- A site survey performed by the US Army Corps of Engineers to officially
determine whether or not a given parcel of land is subject to wetlands
regulations, and if so, the extent of the area.
Joint Permit - The permit required
for the obstruction and encroachment of Pennsylvania Waters or Wetlands.
The joint permit eliminates the need for separate permit applications
at the State and Federal levels. One joint permit is submitted for Pennsylvania's
water obstruction and encroachment permit and a Federal (US Army Corps
of Engineers) Section 9, Section 10, or Section 404 permit. The permit
is also considered by the State as a request for water quality certification
under Section 401 of the Federal Clean Water Act.
Load Agency - A state or Federal
agency taking primary responsibility for preparing an engineering or
Legal Notice - A formal announcement
or finding published by the Department in a periodical or newspaper
to provide official public notice of an action or approval of interest
to the public.
Level of Service (LOS) - Combinations
of operating conditions that can occur on a given lane or roadway when
it is accommodating various traffic volumes.
Limited Access Highway - A highway
on which owners or occupants of abutting lands and other persons have
no legal right of access except at points and in the manner determined
by the authority having jurisdiction over the highway.
Logical Termini - Known features
(land uses, economic areas, population concentrations, cross route locations,
etc.) at either end of a proposed transportation route that enhance
good planning and which serve to make the route usable. Logical termini
are considered rational end points for a transportation improvement.
Long-Range Transportation Plan -
Identifies regional transportation goals, issues, and needs and defines
the direction for regional planning, programming, and project development
over a 20-year period.
Major Investment Study (MIS) - A
study required by FHWA and FTA in their Metropolitan Planning Final
Rules of November 29, 1993. The MIS is an evaluation of the effectiveness
and cost-effectiveness of alternative transportation investments in
attaining local, State, and regional goals and objectives for the metropolitan
area. The study uses a cooperative process which leads to a decision
on the design concept and fiscal scope of an investment(s). The recommended
design concepts(s) may result in additional development as a transportation
Major Metropolitan Transportation Investment
- A major highway or transit improvement of substantial cost that is
expected to have a significant effect on capacity, traffic flow, level
of service, or mode share at the transportation corridor or sub area
Memorandum of Agreement - Lists certain
binding historic resource commitments and outlines measures to avoid,
mitigate, or accept the adverse effects on a given historic resource.
The MOA is part of requirements outlined in Section 106 of the National
Historic Preservation Act of 1966. It must be signed by agencies such
as the State Historic Preservation Officer, the FHWA, the Advisory Council
on Historic Preservation, and the Department.
Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO)
- A planning group designated for each urban area with a population
of 50,000 or more. Members include both private citizens and local government
officials. A MPO addresses Federal aid planning mandates by producing
local area transportation plans or transportation improvement programs
on an annual or biannual basis, or by employing other strategies that
make existing systems more efficient.
Mitigation Measures - Specific design
commitments made with the resource agencies and other agencies during
the environmental evaluation and study process that serve to moderate
or lessen impacts derived from the proposed action. These measures may
include planning and development commitments, environmental measures,
and right-of-way improvements. These commitments are implemented during
construction or post-construction.
Mitigation Report - A summary document
prepared by the originating office for every Final EIS to inform design
consultants, value engineering teams, project engineers, and contractors
of committed project design, operational and construction measures to
minimize or avoid the anticipated environmental consequences. This report
is an internal informational document subject to modification, if necessary,
as the project proceeds through final design.
Modal Split - The proportion of trips
made on the roadway versus other modes of travel such as the public
Needs Service Area - A discrete,
defined expanse of land, defined by radius or geometric bounds, to identify
the extent of demand, usage, or influence that is present and that is
likely to be served by a transportation improvement in a given area.
Knowledge of needs service is useful for differentiating between predominant
types of service and user desires, including usage by local, area, regional,
through or interstate, and long-distance traffic.
Non-Attainment Areas - Any County
or other defined geographic region that the EPA has designated as a
non-attainment area for a transportation related pollutant(s) (such
as ozone) for which National Ambient Air Quality Standards exist. The
areas are ranked by the severity of their problem using marginal, moderate,
serious, severe, or extreme as designations. In accordance with the
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, these areas must take specific emission
No-Build Alternative (also known as "No-Action
Alternative") - Option of maintaining the status quo by
not building transportation improvements. Usually results in eventual
deterioration of existing transportation conditions. Serves as a baseline
for comparison of "Build" Alternatives.
Notice of Intent - Announcement in
the Federal Register advising interested parties that an EPA will be
prepared and circulated for a given project.
Origin-Destination Survey - A survey
conducted of the traffic using the study area roadway system to determine/document
current traffic patterns.
Pennsylvania Modified Habitat Evaluation
Procedure (PAMHEP) - A simplified
version of the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) for assessing and
mitigating impacts to fish and wildlife from proposed water and land
resource development projects.
Peak Hour - Time when a highway carries
its highest volume of traffic, usually the morning or evening "rush"
period when commuters travel to and from work.
PENNDOT Ten-Step Process - The preliminary
design phase of PENNDOT's Transportation Project Development Process.
The Ten-Step Process is the framework for the involvement of resource
agencies and the public in the environmental and alternative
evaluations of project studies (refer to PENNDOT's Environmental
Impact Statement Handbook, Publication No. 278, August 1993).
Permit - Written permission from
a governmental agency to take certain action during the Transportation
Project Development Process (relating to, for example, solid waste management
underground storage tanks, coastal areas, etc.). Specifically, the US
Army Corps of Engineers issues permits for the construction, excavation,
depositing of material, etc. in navigable waters; and, for the discharge
of dredged or fill materials into US waters. Also, the PA Department
of Environmental Protection issues water quality certifications for
actions that result in discharge into regulated waters.
Phase I Alternatives Analysis (also known
as Preliminary Alternatives Analysis) - Within the Preliminary
Design Phase are two sub-phases (Phase I and Phase II) during which
the Project Team attempts to choose the most reasonable, practical,
cost-effective, technically sound, and environmentally sensitive transportation
improvements. During Phase I (Step 4 of the Transportation Project Development
Process), a wide range of preliminary study alternatives is developed
and evaluated. Following engineering feasibility and environmental assessments,
the long, initial list of alternatives is narrowed down, and the least
desirable alternatives are dismissed from further study. A narrower
range of alternatives is then carried forward into Phase II.
Phase II Alternatives Analysis (also known
as Detailed Alternatives Analysis) - During Phase II, the second
sub-phase of the Preliminary Design Phase (and Step 5 of the Transportation
Project Development Process), the smaller range of alternatives is evaluated
in greater detail. The ultimate goal of detailed analysis is to select
an alternative that satisfies project needs while balancing transportation,
community, and environmental objectives. In order to achieve this, engineering
and environmental studies are combined. Specifically: impacts of each
Phase II alternative are identified and quantified; alternatives are
compared on the basis of their consequences; and designs are refined
to avoid, minimize, or mitigate impacts. These analyses are presented
in the EIS, and in many cases, one alternative is recommended as preferred.
Point-of-Access Study - An engineering
evaluation performed for a completed section of limited access highway
to determine the influence to existing levels of service and to adjacent
highway facilities of a new or revised access point (ramp or interchange).
Preliminary Engineering - Early phases
of technical studies undertaken to determine all relevant aspects of
transportation location, to identify feasible route alternatives or
design options, and to assess various cost and benefit parameters before
advancing the project into more detailed final design development.
Prime Farmland - Land that has the
best combination of physical and chemical characteristics for producing
food, feed, fiber, forage, oil seed, and other agricultural crops with
minimum inputs of fuel, fertilizer, pesticides, and labor and without
intolerable soil erosion, as determined by the Secretary of Agriculture.
It does not include land that is already committed to urban development
Problem Statement - A concise narrative,
prepared at the outset of a project or study or as part of a project
needs study, defining the fundamental situation or circumstance to be
solved. A problem statement will generally describe a particular situation
in which an expected level of performance is not being achieved, and
will list one or more important factors which cause or contribute to
the unacceptable performance.
Productive Agricultural Land - (Definitions
found in PA Act 1981-43, Section 3, as amended.) Any land used for production,
commercial purposes, crops, livestock, and livestock products, including
the processing or retail marketing of such crops, livestock, or livestock
products if more than 50 percent of such proposed merchandised products
are produced by the farm operator.
Project Limits - The physical end
points of a proposed alternative or study, usually designated at geographic
or municipal boundaries, at intersections, at roadway segments where
cross sections change, or at the beginning or end of numbered state
Project Need Statement - A statement
of specific transportation problems and/or deficiencies which have resulted
in the search for improvements. Project needs are typically based on
technical information and analyses.
Project Purpose - A broad statement
of the overall intended objective to be achieved by a proposed transportation
Public Hearing - A meeting designed
to afford the public the fullest opportunity to express support of or
opposition to a transportation project in an open forum at which a verbatim
record (transcript) of the proceedings is kept.
Public Meeting - An announced meeting
conducted by transportation officials designed to facilitate participation
in the decision-making process and to assist the public in gaining an
informed view of a proposed project at any level of the Transportation
Project Development Process. Also, such a gathering may be referred
to as a Public Information Meeting.
Qualitative Analysis - A general
concept which categorizes a process used in certain types of environmental
or route location studies where multiple factors are compared in a systematic
and comprehensive manner on the basis of sound judgment. Factors analyzed
by using a qualitative analysis are such that they cannot be measured
in monetary terms, have no apparent common denominators, and are not
Quantitative Analysis - The process
used in certain economic, cost-benefit, engineering, or traffic studies
where multiple factors, elements, and/or outcomes are evaluated and
compared by the use of measurable data. Certain mathematical models,
formulas, numerical indices, rankings, and value matrices may be used
to assist with such a process.
Record of Decision (ROD) - A document
prepared by the Division Office of the FHWA that presents the basis
for selecting and approving a specific transportation proposal that
has been evaluated through the various environmental and engineering
studies of the Transportation Project Development Process. Typically,
the Record of Decision identifies the alternative selected in the Final
EIS, the alternatives considered, measures to minimize harm, monitoring
or enforcement programs, and an itemized list of commitments and mitigation
Regulatory Agency - An agency empowered
to issue permits or recommend approval or denial of a permit.
Resource Agencies - A group of approximately
ten Federal and state agencies or commissions which have various regulatory,
jurisdictional, and/or administrative responsibilities in a variety
of subject areas that are part of the Transportation Project Development
Process. These agencies and commissions are involved in participating
in project meetings, reviewing and evaluating Department studies, commenting
on documents, and granting certain approvals.
Right-of-Way - Land, property, or
interest therein acquired for and devoted to transportation purposes,
including construction, maintenance, operations, and protection of a
Rural Historic Landscape - For the
purposes of the National Register of Historic Places, a rural historic
landscape is defined as a geographical area that historically has been
used by people or shaped or modified by human activity, occupancy, or
intervention and that possesses a significant concentration, linkage
or continuity of areas of land use, vegetation, buildings and structures,
roads and waterways, and natural features.
Safety Improvements - Roadway maintenance
activities and smaller construction projects that correct conditions
occurring on or alongside an existing highway. Typically involves minor
widening, resurfacing, regrading roadsides, hazard or obstacle elimination,
guiderail installation, and miscellaneous maintenance.
Secondary Effects - A general term
to define impacts which are caused by a specific action and which take
place later in time or further removed in distance but are still reasonably
foreseeable. Secondary effects can be indeterminate, may not be easily
recognized, and can be difficult to identify and evaluate.
State Implementation Plan - A document
prepared by state government officials specifying measures to be used
in the attainment and maintenance of National Ambient Air Quality Standards.
Study Area - A geographic area selected
and defined at the outset of engineering or environmental evaluations,
which is sufficiently adequate in size to address all pertinent project
matters occurring within it.
System Linkage - Interconnection
of roadway segments that comprise an overall transportation network.
Also, a discussion of how a proposed project fits into the existing
and future transportation system (network) and how it contributes to
developing a sound transportation network in an area or region. The
terms connector road, missing link, gap completion, circumferential
link, or beltway segment are sometimes used to describe this concept.
Technical File - A compilation of
raw data from all of the technical studies (e.g. traffic counts, noise
and air quality analyses, wetland surveys) conducted for a study.
Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ) - A subdivision
of the project (or study) area for which demographic data are collected
in order to estimate traffic volume. The arrival and departure pattern
of the estimated traffic is also organized by TAZ's.
Transportation Improvement Program (TIP)
- A long-range transportation plan established by the MPOs in each urbanized
area which consists of a prioritized list of projects or project segments
to be carried out within the next three years after adoption of the
Transportation Project Development Process
- PENNDOT's procedures for advancing a transportation improvement project
from concept to construction which are divided into five Phases, from
Planning to Construction. The philosophy behind the process emphasizes
the integration of engineering and environmental studies, and continuous
coordination among Department offices, state and Federal resource agencies,
and the public. The ultimate goal is to select, design and construct
the most reasonable, practical, cost-effective, technically sound, and
environmentally sensitive transportation improvement option.
Transportation Systems Management (TSM)
Alternative - TSM maximizes the utilization and efficiency of
the present transportation system. This limited construction option
is always evaluated when major urban area construction activities are
proposed, but since ISTEA, it is considered more often for other projects.
Components of a TSM Alternative can include fringe parking, ridesharing,
bus transfer facilities, traffic signal time optimization, high occupancy
vehicle lanes, and other administrative or management strategies which
facilitate the movement of people.
Unique Farmland - Land other than
prime farmland that is used for production of specific high-value food
and fiber crops, as determined by the Secretary of Agriculture. Unique
farmland possesses a special combination of soil quality, location,
growing season, and moisture supply needed to economically produce sustained
high quality or high yields of specific crops when treated and managed
according to acceptable farm methods. Examples of such crops include
citrus, tree nuts, olives, cranberries, fruits, and vegetables.
Urban Area - An area having a Center
City population of 50,000 or more as defined by the 1990 US Census;
may also include other major population concentrations where a systems
planning study is deemed necessary.
Urban Growth Boundary (UGB) - As
defined for Lancaster County, this is a boundary around an urban area
in the County that is intended to direct growth in the urban area where
there is a full range of public facilities and services available to
support residential economic development and to prevent development
from sprawling into rural areas.
Value Engineering - An analysis of
materials, processes, and products in which functions are related to
cost and from which a selection may be made so as to achieve the desired
function at the lowest overall cost consistent with performance.
Village Growth Boundary (VGB) - As
defined for Lancaster County, this is a boundary around a rural village
in the County that is intended to direct a limited amount of growth
in the village area which serves as a community center for the rural
population and to prevent development from sprawling.
Wetland Identification/Delineation and Functional
Assessment Report - Provides both written and illustrated data
to define the boundaries of those topographic features within a study
area and which meet the Federal definition of "wetland" as
contained in 33 CFR 323.3(c). A delineation report represents the first
step in the overall wetland study process, evaluates the importance
of a wetland, and ultimately assesses the effects of a project on a
Wetland Finding Procedure - The wetland
finding procedure establishes the criteria and procedures for satisfying
the wetland finding requirements of Executive Order 11990. It requires
documentation of wetlands associated with the project including a description
of the wetlands, identification of wetlands impacts, documentation of
alternatives analysis, and development of a mitigation plan for unavoidable